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Our .. 
Communal Health 



PUBLISHED BY THE 
CONSOLIDATED BOARD OF HEALTH 
OP 

Wilmington and New Hanover County 
North Carolina 




1-9-3-5 



From the North East River to Federal Point, and from 
the Cave Fear to the Sea — City, Suburb, Village 
and Farm — we are one people striving 
for healthful and useful living — 



Cfie JLifirarp 

of tt>e 

Unitmzity of JBort!) Carolina 




Collection of j@ort& Carolmfana 



OUR COMMUNAL HEALTH 
For the Year 1935 



New Hanover County Board of Health, 
Wilmington, N. C. 

Gentlemen: 

I hereby submit to you the report of the activities of the Health 
Department, as summarized by the head of each administrative division, 
for the year 1935. 

The number of deaths caused by the various diseases and the age at 
which our citizens died are presented in tables and graphs covering the 
year 1935 and the preceding years in order that results of public health 
activities may be evaluated in terms of disease prevention and extension 
of the span of life. In Table No. 1, the deaths which have occurred in Wil- 
mington and rural New Hanover County are tabulated according to the 
cause, race, sex, and age. In Table No. 2, you will find a comparison 
between data of the year 1935 and the years that have gone before it. 
The crude death rates are given in Table No. 3 and expressed graphically 
in Fig. No. 1. The tabulation of births and of communicable diseases is 
given in Tables No. 4 and 7 respectively. 

None of the communicable diseases visited us during the past year in 
epidemic proportions. Reference to mortality records, Table No. 1, will 
show no deaths from smallpox, measles, scarlet fever, or diphtheria. Ex- 
cluding non-residents, we had one death each from typhoid, malaria, and 
whooping-cough. 

Diphtheria 

It is encouraging to report not only no deaths from diphtheria but 
only 8 cases. Of this number, only 5 occurred within the city. We like 
to feel that this is a result of the continuous effort of pediatricians and 
the Health Department to secure early immunization against this dreaded 
disease. We may have this record marred at any time, but if the parents 
of young children will give their support and cooperation we can put 
diphtheria in a class with smallpox. We have limited our Schick testing 
in the schools to the first grade and are urging the test for all children 
examined in our pre-school clinics (except those known to be immune). 
The most important effort in this direction is our recently established 
custom of mailing to every child born in the city or county an attractive 
birthday greeting card on the day it is six months old, urging immuniza- 
tion against diphtheria. The age of six months has been declared the 
most opportune time, and alum precipitated toxoid the most effective im- 
munizing agent. Special reference should be made to the good work done 
among the colored infants by a colored maternity and infancy nurse fur- 
nished by the ERA. 

Fig. No. 10 shows the case rate and the death rate for each year 
since 1916. For the first time in the history of the department, we have 
gone two consecutive years without a death from diphtheria. 

Typhoid Fever 

Reference to Fig. No. 3 and Table No. 7 will show 1 non-resident and 
7 resident cases of typhoid reported, with 2 deaths, one of these being the 
non-resident. Every resident case occurred within the city and among 
the colored people. Of 24 cases of typhoid occurring during the past three 
years, 21 were within the city and were colored. 

[ 1 3 



In view of the high occurrence of typhoid among members of the 
colored race and because of the fact they do not patronize clinics at the 
Health Department, we offered, through the colored paper and through our 
two colored nurses, to conduct small typhoid inoculation clinics at numer- 
ous points throughout "Dry Pond" and "Brooklyn." Churches, "lodges," 
and homes in which a case had occurred, were used as clinic centers. The 
results were gratifying. 

Poverty, crowding, and flush toilets without water keep our sanitary 
inspectors constantly on the alert. Because of this state of affairs, each 
individual is urged to protect himself by being immunized at proper in- 
tervals. 

Measles 

When we observe that measles epidemics return rather consistently 
at three or four year intervals, we may expect an epidemic probably in 
1937 or 1938. To our lay readers we urgently recommend the use of con- 
valescent serum in the case of very young or very frail children whenever 
the epidemic comes. 

Tuberculosis 

Tuberculosis stood seventh from the top among the causes of death 
last year (Table No. 1). As has been the case in the past, the rate was 
much higher among negroes (Fig. No. 2). Within the city, 14 out of 21 
persons dying of this disease were negroes. In the county the ratio was 
7 out of 8. Efforts toward the control of tuberculosis are slow, expensive, 
and rather discouraging unless results are considered over a long period 
of time. 

Beginning last year, the Health Department offered and will continue 
to offer annually the tuberculin skin test to all members of the senior 
class of the High School (white and colored) who wish to be tested. It 
is believed that this procedure will prevent much clinical tuberculosis if 
the use of the test can be popularized. The mental anguish and worry 
of parents of perfectly well children who react strongly amounts to a real 
handicap in this work. Time and successful arrest and cure of incipient 
cases should gradually overcome this trouble. Several children and one 
teacher with definite tuberculous disease have already been found by this 
method. They are well under control and apparently on the road to com- 
plete recovery. 

The State Sanatorium furnished us a trained clinician without cost 
to conduct a two-weeks free tuberculosis clinic for adults. These ex- 
aminations were by appointment and practically every appointment was 
taken. 

No reference to the control of tuberculosis here is complete without 
special comment on the Red Cross Sanatorium. This little sanatorium, 
supported partly by City-County funds and partly by philanthropy, is 
more and more becoming a thoroughly equipped, highly specialized hos- 
pital for the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. Many borderline 
cases could well afford to take advantage of the facilities offered here. 
From a public health standpoint this institution's greatest value is its 
equipment for collapse therapy. This is the most rapid method of chang- 
ing a positive sputum into a negative one and is therefore a great pro- 
tection to the general public as well as to the individual patient. 

Our district nurses make several hundred visits to tuberculosis patients 
each year. 

Parent-Teacher Associations provide milk and sometimes lunches for 
under-privileged children with glandular or childhood type of tuberculosis. 

The use of the tuberculin skin test and the X-Ray cannot be over 
emphasized because early diagnosis is the all important factor in the pre- 
vention and cure of tuberculosis. 



t 2 ] 



Entero-Colitis 

Fig.. No. 4 expresses graphically the decline in the deaths due to 
entero-colitis under two years. Deaths from this cause have been reasonably 
low for the past ten years. If we exclude non-residents, there were only 3 
deaths in the city and 3 in the county in 1935. The credit for this is probably 
largely due to the constant efforts by the public health nurses, the pediatric- 
ians, and the baby clinics in spreading the knowledge of sterilization, pas- 
teurization, and sanitation to the mothers of infants. The persistent effort 
on the part of the dairy inspector to keep the bacterial count of our milk 
supply as low as possible should also be given much of the credit for this 
sustained low death rate from entero-colitis. 

Pellagra 

The record of 2 resident deaths from pellagra compares favorably with 
that of 12, 10, 4, 5, 8 and 5 respectively for the past six years. The use 
of dried yeast and the correction of diet in the cure and prevention of 
pellagra has been greatly augmented by the local chapter of the Red 
Cross. Through this agency, practically all pellagra patients were visited 
and supplied with yeast and instructions as to diet. Some six or eight 
lectures were given about at various rural schools and churches by phy- 
sicians at the request of the secretary of the local chapter of the Red 
Cross. The work of the Home Demonstration Agent in the county is a 
substantial help in our efforts against pellagra. 

Malaria 

We had 1 death from malaria during the past year, the first since 
1930 when we had 1 other malaria death, as shown in Fig. No. 5. Last 
October, the United States Public Health Service furnished and examined 
for us 332 slides for malaria. The thick drop method was used and the 
specimens were taken among the children in our rural schools. This was 
done because continuous effort has been made for a number of years to 
reduce to a minimum mosquito breeding in and immediately adjoining the 
city, while very little has been done in the rural sections. In the whole 
survey, 19 specimens were reported as positive; 15 of the positive speci- 
mens were distributed among 97 negro children in the Scott's Hill and 
Middle Sound schools. Myrtle Grove white school accounted for 2 cases; 
Oak Hill colored (Carolina Beach road) for 1; and the remaining 1 case 
was found in the regular clinic at the Health Department. The results 
of this survey were presented to the district engineer in charge of WPA 
malaria control work here, and to the foreman of our own mosquito com- 
mission. 

The ERA and WPA have done a great deal of good drainage work, 
a record of which may be seen in Mr. Morgan's report on page 18. 

Poliomyelitis 

For the first time in the history of public health, according to Surgeon 
General H. S. Cummings, of the United States Public Health Service, our 
state had quite an extensive epidemic of poliomyelitis, or infantile paraly- 
sis. We were fortunate in having only 2 resident cases. What may hap- 
pen next year no one can tell. While there were many violations of the 
state and local health organizations' advice against allowing children to 
crowd together, the large majority of parents were most cooperative in 
observing this only known means of limiting the spread of this distress- 
ing disease. 

The local department and pediatricians cooperated with representa- 
tives from the United States Public Health Service in giving the Park- 
Brodie vaccine for poliomyelitis to some ninety-odd children. Aside from 
rather marked local reactions, one abscess was the only harm to come from 
the study. This is a most favorable report, when we learn later that the 



[ 3 ] 



authorities have discontinued the use of this vaccine because of the de- 
velopment of a number of cases of poliomyelitis apparently from the vac- 
cine. Studies on lower animals will of course be continued in an effort to 
secure protection against this crippling and often fatal disease. 

Infant Mortality 

Table No. 5 will show that prematurity is still responsible for prac- 
tically one third of the deaths of infants under one year of age and con- 
siderably more than half of these infants died before they were one week 
old. This certainly indicates that there is something lacking in the pre- 
natal development of these infants. Through our clinics and our prenatal 
nursing service, constant effort is made to promote the hygienic and dietetic 
conditions of all prospective mothers reporting to our department. The 
names of all prenatal patients of our clinic are put on the mailing list 
of the Maternity and Infancy Division of the State Board of Health. 
Mimeographed sheets of instructions as to diet, elimination, and keeping 
in touch with a physician, etc., are given to each one of these patients, 
and their names and addresses are given to the visiting district nurses. 

The federal government has furnished our clinic a trained part-time 
nurse, who has charge of prenatal patients. She takes a personal interest 
in every case and has done a really worthwhile work among these women. 
Her work is directly under the physician in charge of the clinic and all 
abnormal conditions are referred to him. This is a slow, but, we believe, 
a very effective way to teach proper prenatal care. 

Financial inability to secure the proper diet and relief from domestic 
and laborious duties during this period probably accounts for many of the 
deaths due to prematurity. At any rate, the Health Department and 
private physicians have a real problem in eliminating or radically reducing 
the number of premature births. 

Care of mothers during delivery is shown in Table No. 6. A glance 
at this table will show that a very high percentage of mothers are at- 
tended by physicians and mostly in a hospital. What might our record 
be were it not for free clinics and free hospitalization for those unable 
to pay for such service? 

Fig. No. 6 shows that deaths from organic heart disease are rapidly 
increasing. In fact, it is our principal cause of death. As public health 
workers, with the cooperation of the medical profession, gradually reduce 
the number of deaths from preventable diseases, it is only natural that 
more people must die of organic heart or some other degenerative dis- 
ease. By exerting special efforts against acute and chronic (or focal) 
infections we may reasonably hope to elevate the age at which our citi- 
zens die of organic heart disease, cerebral hemorrhage, cancer, and neph- 
ritis. These degenerative diseases caused deaths as follows: cerebral 
hemorrhage, 69; cancer, 43; and nephritis, 53. In this connection we 
especially recommend routine physical examinations, preventive dentistry, 
and properly balanced diet. 

It is a pleasure to report that the appropriating authorities in coopera- 
tion with the State Board of Health have provided a dentist for twenty 
weeks in our schools for 1935-36. Oral hygiene is easily one of the most 
important factors in the prevention of focal infections and the eventual 
prevention of heart and kidney disease. It is hoped that this will become 
a part of our program each year. 

Table No. 8 gives a record of our maternal deaths from 1914 through 
1933 in five year periods, while the record of these deaths for 1934 and 
1935 begins a new period. Very little improvement took place in ma- 
ternal mortality during the twenty-year period. However, if we rule out 
all non-resident mothers and their babies, we have the gratifying white 

[ 4 ] 



V 



maternal death rate of 4.2; colored, 11.9; total, 7.4, fc for 1934, while for 
1935 we have a white maternal rate of 6.4; colored, 8.4; and total, 7.3. 
Our rather high number of septic infection deaths would seem to convince 
the medical profession that the conduct of labor should be treated as a 
major operation and all the advantages of antisepsis and asepsis be given 
these patients whether delivered in the hospital or in the home. It should 
be reported that in this review of maternal deaths, every death pertaining 
to pregnancy in any form or at any stage, principal cause or contributory, 
was included in this count. A considerable number died of influenza, pneu- 
monia, and such diseases in which pregnancy may have played no part. 
Compared with the United States rate of 6.0 for 1934 and the state rate 
of 7.6 for the same year, our twenty-year period of 12.7 was inexcusably 
high. However, it is most gratifying to report a rate of 7.3 for 1935. 

Reference to Fig. No. 20 will show that syphilis and gonorrhea very 
greatly outnumber any of the other reportable and supposedly preventable 
diseases. The contrast would probably be even greater if all cases of 
venereal diseases were reported to this department. The report of the 
assistant health officer will show the number of Wassermanns taken and 
the number of specific treatments given. 

Reference to Fig. No. 11 will show a most gratifying increase in the 
length of the lives of our citizens as is indicated by the average age at 
death. In the twenty-six year period from 1910 to 1935, the average age 
at death has increased from approximately 31 years to 47 years, a gain 
of 16 years. 

Reference to Fig. No. 12 shows that for the fourteen-year period, 
1922 to 1935, there has been a consistent gain in the average age at death 
of all residents of the city of Wilmington. During this period the increase 
has been from 36 years to 46 years, an average gain of 10 years. 

Reference to Fig. No. 13 shows a most prenomenal increase in the 
length of life of our rural population as indicated by the average age at 
death. During the fourteen-year period from 1922 to 1935, the average 
age at death has increased from 36 years to 52 years, a gain of 16 years. 

Reference to Fig. No. 14 shows in comparison with Fig. No. 15, the 
most rapid gain in the increasing of the length of life has been during 
the last fourteen years of this twenty-six year period. The gain in the 
length of life of the people of New Hanover County, including the city 
of Wilmington, from 1910 to 1922 was only about 4.5 years, whereas, ref- 
erence to Fig. No. 15 will show that in the fourteen-year period of 1922 
to 1935,, the gain was 11 years. 

In Fig. No. 8, we have plotted the deaths since 1925 by months. The 
maximum, minimum, and mean death rates are shown and the seasonal 
trend indicated by a normal curve. This data is evidence that we have, 
through our health program, so changed our environment that today we 
have no health hazards which are not common to the country at large. 

The care of the indigent sick has been heavy as usual, but the ERA 
and WPA have aided greatly in providing nurses, office attendants, clerical 
help, and drugs. 

For the second time in succession our water has been free from salt the 
whole year, thanks to the dykes and tide-gates built around Toomer's Creek 
with CWA and ERA funds. Reference to the sanitary engineer's report 
will show that the purification processes at the water plant have been 
most efficient. The United States Treasury Standards require that not 
more than 10% of the 10 cc portions examined shall show the presence of 
organisms of the B. Coli group. Only one of the 1,631 such specimens 
showed these organisms. 



[ 5 ] 



Carolina Beach has completed the construction and installation of its 
new water system — an important advance in this rapidly growing resort 
village. 

The report of the assistant food and dairy inspector shows that our 
dairies furnished milk of excellent quality the whole year. 

It is impossible to enumerate all of the organizations and individuals 
that helped in public health work, but some of the most notable are 
the Wilmington Star News in giving publicity; the Parent-Teacher As- 
sociations in sponsoring the round-up of pre-school children and in dis- 
tributing milk to children infected with tuberculosis; the North Carolina 
Sorosis in conducting a baby clinic; the Rotary Club in conjunction with 
the State Department of Vocational Rehabilitation in conducting an ortho- 
pedic clinic; the Red Cross Sanatorium in the care of tuberculous patients; 
and the James Walker Memorial Hospital in conducting the isolation ward 
for communicable diseases. 

The reports of the various administrative subdivisions of the depart- 
ment are given as follows: 



Assistant Health officer Page 7 

Sanitary Engineer Pages 8, 9, 10 

Food and Dairy Inspector Page 11 

Assistant Food and Dairy Inspector Pages 12., 13 

Diagnostic Laboratory Page 14 

Public Health Nurses Page 15 

Sanitary Inspectors Page 16 

Incinerator Page 17 

Hospital Page 16 

Plumbing Inspector Page 17 

Mosquito Commission Page 18 



During the year we have endeavored to promote public health educa- 
tion and have used whatever facilities were available, especially public 
health posters, the mimeograph, and articles in the press. 

It is a pleasure to record the loyalty and enthusiasm with which the 
members of our staff have attempted to perform their duties. 

Respectfully submitted, 

A. H. ELLIOT, M. D. 

County Health Officer. 



C 6 ] 



ASSISTANT COUNTY HEALTH OFFICER'S REPORT 
For the Year 1935 
Clinic Report 



* 


White 


Colored 


Total 


Number home visits 


857 


591 


1,448 


Number patients treated or examined at office 


2,768 


5,049 


7,817 


Number office visits 


4,317 


8,329 


12,646 


Number patients treated or examined, county jail 


77 


89 


Xv/v> 


Number visits to county jail 






lOO 


Number patients treated or examined, county home 


68 


27 


95 


Number visits to county home 






51 


Number completed anti-rabic treatments 


20 


9 


29 


Number examinations of prisoners 


151 


159 


310 


Number examinations, child for industry 


4 


5 


9 


Number examinations by court order 


9 


4 


13 


Number examinations, admissions to institutions 


18 


7 


25 


Number examinations for lunacy 


23 


17 


40 


Number examinations, postmortems 


3 


12 


15 


Number examinations, teachers 


50 


10 


60 


Number obstetrical cases examined 


121 


292 


413 


Number visits by obstetrical cases 


. 376 


865 


1,241 


School children examined for scabies 


35 





35 


Children examined for other diseases 


450 


503 


953 


Number tonsil examinations 


123 


261 


384 


Number Wassermann tests (state laboratory) 


. 511 


949 


1,460 



Number Foodhandlers Examined 



Restaurants 75 

Dairies 17 

Hotels 8 

Homes 38 

Other food establishments 180 

Total 318 

Venereal Disease Clinic 

Syphilis Gonorrhea Chancroid 

W B W B W B 



MFM FMFMFMFMF 
New cases attending clinic 24 18 99 119 20 5 23 8 5 2 26 2 
Old cases attending clinic- 82 123 381 557 14 6 17 6 7 7 
Treatments : 

Number doses, arsenical.... 171 210 777 1091 84 41 36 31 13 2 45 2 
Number doses, bismuth. 60 138 306 534 

Venereal Clinic Totals 

Syphilis: New cases, 260; old cases, 1,143; arsenical treatment, 2,249; 
bismuth, 1,038. 

Gonorrhea: New cases, 56; old cases, 43; treatments, 192. 
Chancroid: New cases, 35; old cases, 14; treatments, 62. 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. D. CARTER, M. D. 
Assistant County Health Officer. 



[ 7 3 



SANITARY ENGINEER'S REPORT 
For the Year 1935 

DR. A. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 
Wilmington, N. C. 

Dear Sir: 

The report of the sanitary engineer and the laboratory at the city 
water purification plant for the year 1935 is as follows: 

Water Works 

Blue prints giving complete summaries of all laboratory results and 
operating data accompany this report. Some of the most important re- 
sults are given in the tables below. 

Operating Statistics 



Water treated, in millions of gallons + 907.450 

Chemicals used, in pounds per million gallons: 

Alum „ 234 

Lime 130 

Chlorine . 4.6 

Activated Carbon 3.22 

Wash water, per cent of water treated 1.59 

Coal, pounds per million gallons 171 

Power, K. W. H. per million gallons 570 



The figures given for coal and power are for low lift pumping, based 
on one third total fuel. 

Cost Data 

(Does not include depreciation, interest, or insurance) 



Low pressure pumping, labor and materials $ 7,485.43 

Filtration: Chemicals and materials 5,146.72 

Supervision, labor, and laboratory „.^::.„„. 6,760.64 



Total cost of purification $19,392.79 

High pressure pumping, labor and materials 21,309.26 



Total cost for year 1935 .......$40,702.05 

Total cost for year 1934 ....$41,877.16 

Total cost per million gallons, 1935 $ 44.86 

Cost of purification per million gallons, 1935 21.38 

Cost of high pressure pumping per million gallons, 1935 23.48 

Total cost per million gallons, 1934 45.22 

Cost of purification per million gallons, 1934 21.40 

Cost of high pressure pumping per million gallons, 1934 23.82 

It is seen that the costs for the year were about the same as the 



previous year. Power costs were somewhat lower, while alum and labor 
costs were slightly higher. Unusually high color in the raw water during 
the late summer caused the chemical costs to be higher than they would 
otherwise have been. 



[ 8 ] 



Annual Summary of Laboratory Results on the City Water 





Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 




T? a \xr 
J. Vet w 


Tap 


Raw 


Tap 


Raw 


Tap 


Color 


58 


13 


^00 


01) 




r 



luroiaity - 


36 


0.7 


400 


r 
O 


1 A. 
1U 


A 
U 


Total Hardness (Soap)— . 


15 


32 


18 


44 


10 


25 


Alkalinity 


12 


22 


18 


32 


6 


13 


Chloride * 


10 


10 


144 


67 


5 


5 


Free Carbon Dioxide .... 


7 


0.1 


14 


2 


4 





pH Value 


6.3 


8.0 


6.8 


8.6 


6.0 


6.7 


Bacteria per ml. 37° C — 


246 


3.1 


1800 


120 


45 





B. Coli per 100 ml 


391.5 


0.006 


571.5 


0.073 


115.2 






The chemical results given above are in parts per million. 

Removal of Bacteria 

Ave. Bacteria Ave. B. Coli 

per ml. 37° C. per 100 ml. 

Raw water 24tf 391.5 

Basin effluent 59 16.6 

Filter effluent 31 0.20 

Sterilized effluent (tap) 3.1 0.006 

Percentage Removal 

Bacteria B. Coli 

By sedimentation 76.0 95.76 

By filtration 47.4 98.79 

Bv sterilization 90.0 97.00 

Total removal 98.8 99.998 

The sanitary quality of the water delivered to the city was very high 
throughout the year. Of 1,631 ten ml. portions examined, only one showed 
the presence of organisms of the B. Coli group. The United States Treas- 
ury Standards require that not more than 10 per cent of the ten ml. por- 
tions shall show the presence of such organisms. During the latter part 
of the summer the color was higher in the tap water than is desirable. 
Color in the raw water was higher than at any time in the past ten years. 
This was probably due to the fact that rainfall had been excessive along 
the coast and deficient in the central part of the state. Some trouble 
with tastes and odors was experienced. This was caused by organisms 
growing in the open clear water reservoir in the summer and by extremely 
cold weather late in December. 

Laboratory 

The following examinations were made in the laboratory by the sani- 
tary engineer: 

Total plant samples (raw, coagulated, filtered, and tap) 2,981 

Water samples from outside sources 1,218 

Feces for typhoid 48 

Blood for typhoid 17 

Urine for typhoid 

Filter sand analyses 

Water samples analyzed for iron 8 

The outside water samples listed above include samples from the sound 
at Wrightsville Beach, from the Y. M. C. A. pool, from Greenfield Lake, 
and regular samples from the public supplies at Wrightsville Beach and 
Carolina Beach and from the schools in the county. Also numerous samples 
were examined from private wells and regular samples were taken from 
the public and semi-public wells within the city. 

[ 9 ] 



Salt 

The protective works at Toomer's Creek were very efficient in keeping 
salt out of the city water. Maximum chloride concentrations observed 
were 67 parts per million in the tap water, 144 in the raw water, 3,050 in 
North East River at Hilton, 5,500 in Cape Fear River at the highway 
bridge, and 1,150 in Cape Fear River at Navassa. 

Improvements to Water Plant 

Last year it was recommended that certain niters be overhauled, 
that the pipe gallery be provided with a new floor, that a meter be in- 
stalled on the wash water line, that the emergency pipe line whereby 
raw river water could be pumped into the city mains be disconnected, and 
that the clear water reservoir be covered. It is a pleasure to report that 
the contract has been let for all these as well as other improvements to 
the water supply system under a PWA loan, and that the work will prob- 
ably be under way within a few days. 

Respectfully submitted, 

L. I. LASSITER, 

Sanitary Engineer. 



[ 10 ] 



FOOD AND DAIRY INSPECTOR'S REPORT 
For the Year 1935 

Dr. A. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 
Wilmington, N. C. 

Dear Sir: 

I wish to submit the following report for the year 1935: 



Passed Condemned 

Cattle 890 14 

Calves 855 12 

Goats . 70 

Hogs 2,015 25 

Meat products 7,700 lbs. 

T. B. tests 1,226 

Abortion 146 



Total 5,202 51 

Number 
Inspections 

Bakeries 76 

Candy Factories 49 

Commission Houses 465 

Fish and Oyster Stalls 455 

Groceries 710 

Hotels 84 

Ice Cream Factories 40 

Meat Markets 950 

Milk Stations 32 

Restaurants 1,080 

Soda Fountains 835 

Dairies 205 

Herds 205 

Dogs 515 

Bottling Plants 65 

Slaughter Houses 96 



Total 5,862 

Miles Driven 7,900 



Respectfully submitted, 

R. P. HUFFMAN, 

Food and Dairy Inspector. 



[ 11 ] 



ASSISTANT FOOD AND DAIRY INSPECTOR'S REPORT 
For the Year 1935 

Dr. A. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 
Wilmington, N. C. 

Dear Sir: 

I respectfully submit the following report for the year 1935: 



Number Samples, Average Bacterial Count, Butter Fat, and Total Solids 
for 1935, of all Dairies Producing Milk Sold in New Hanover County 



NAME 


Grade 


Number 
Samples 


Average 
Bacterial 
Count 


Number 


Butter 
Fat 


Number 

Qo yyinlp? 


Total 
Solids 


Blake, A. M 


A 


23 


12,000 


24 


3.76 


24 


12.56 


Blake, H. C 


A 


24 


12,000 


24 


4.20 


24 


13.12 


Botevsky 


A 


24 


18,000 


24 


4.00 


24 


12.64 


Clemmons 


A 


24 


5,000 


24 


4.28 


24 


13.18 


Drevyn 


A 


24 


7,500 


24 


3.80 


24 


12.60 


Dixon 


A 


24 


12,000 


24 


3.71 


24 


12.50 


Garrett 


A 


25 


4,400 


25 


4.12 


25 


12.65 


Harrell 


A 


22 


4,000 


22 


4.40 


22 


13.41 


Hollis .'. 


A 


23 


7,400 


20 


4.16 


20 


13.04 


Home, C. 


A 


27 


13,000 


26 


3.88 


26 


12.74 


Home, H. L._ 


A 


21 


5,000 


21 


3.95 


21 


12.85 


Johnston 


A 


24 


7,800 


24 


3.98 


24 


12.88 


Leeuwenburg 


A* 


24 


5,500 


24 


3.65 


24 


12.38 


McEachern 


A* 


24 


6,000 


23 


3.88 


23 


12.22 


McEachern 


A 


24 


3,500 


24 


3.81 


24 


12.61 


Meade 


A 


23 


12,000 


22 


4.11 


22 


12.95 


Rivers 


A 


16 


15,000 


16 


4.18 


16 


13.01 


Swart 


A 


24 


3,500 


24 


4.10 


24 


13.06 


Swart 


A* 


24 


1,200 


23 


4.35 


23 


13.35 


Smith 


A 


20 


5,600 


20 


4.35 


20 


13.26 


Taylor 


A 


20 


12,000 


20 


4.20 


20 


13.15 


Vanderwal 


A 


24 


9,500 


22 


3.75 


22 


12.60 


White 


A* 


24 


3,700 


24 


4.03 


24 


12.84 


Number of Samples 


and 


Bacterial Averages of Milk to Pasteurizing 


Plant 



Name 

Batts 

Cox 

Hermitage 

Invershiel 

Kromalay 

Leeuwenburg, J. 

Plevier 

Quinlivan 

Sanderson 

St. Helena Colony 

Wood 

Bacterial Analyses ±,±±o 

Butter Fat Analyses 568 

Total Solids Computed 567 

Ice Cream, Bacterial Analyses 8 

Ice Cream, Butter Fat Analyses 19 

Ice Cream, Samples Weighed 23 

Chocolate Milk, Bacterial Analyses 8 



Inspections „ 422 

Conferences 460 

Miles Driven 11,362 

♦Pasteurized. [ 12 ] 



Grade 


Number 


Ave. Bact. 


Samples 


Count 


B 


24 


21,000 


A 


33 


23,000 


A 


50 


4,000 


A 


50 


14,000 


B 


48 


34,000 


A 


50 


30,000 


A 


50 


20,000 


A 


50 


24,000 


B 


25 


30,000 


B 


70 


22,000 


A 


50 


6,300 



Laboratory Report 



Bacterial Count of All Milk Sold in New Hanover County 



Sold Direct to Consumer 

January 8,000 

February 6,300 

March 5,400 

April 10,500 

May 7,400 

June 5,500 

July 5,600 

August 13,000 

September 9,000 

October 6,500 

November 6,000 

December 6,000 



Pasteurized Before Going 
to Consumer 

January 20,000 

February 11,000 

March 24,000 

April 12,000 

May 25,000 

June 13,500 

July 25,000 

August 23,000 

September 23,000 

October 6,000 

November 14,000 

December 16,500 



Butter Fat and Total Solids Averages, by Months, of All Milk Sold 
in New Hanover County 



Months 



January -. 
February . 
March __„ 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August - 

September 
October ... 
November 
December 



Butter Fat 


Total Solids 


Average 


Average 


4.10 


13.02 


3.93 


12.87 


4.00 


12.76? 


4.00 


12.78 


4.00 


12.88 


3.95 


12.76 


3.76 


12.80 


3.97 


12.73 


3.95 


12.81 


4.22 


13.15 


4.23 


13.00 


4.18 


13.04 



65.20% 
84.70% 
11.47% 
1.73% 
1.53% 
0.00% 
0.19% 
0.19% 
0.19% 



38.40% 
63.60% 
17.60% 
6.90% 
4.00% 
3.96% 
1.25% 
2.65% 
0.4% 



Bacterial Count Summary, 1935 
(Milk Direct to Consumer) 

of all samples showed a bacterial count of less than 10,000 per cc. 
of all samples showed a bacterial count of less than 25,000 per cc. 
of all samples showed a bacterial count between 25,001 and 50,000 
of all samples showed a bacterial count between 50,001 and 100,000 
of all samples showed a bacterial count between 100,001 and 200,000 
of all samples showed a bacterial count between 200,001 and 300,000 
of all samples showed a bacterial count between 300,001 and 500,000 
of all samples showed a bacterial count between 500,001 and 1,000,000 
of all samples showed a bacterial count of over 1,000,000 

Milk Pasteurized Before Going to Consumer 

of all samples showed a bacterial count of less than 10,000 per cc. , 
of all samples showed a bacterial count of less than 25,000 per cc. 
of all samples showed a bacterial count between 25,001 and 50,000 
of all samples showed a bacterial count between 50,001 and 100,000 
of all samples showed a bacterial count between 100,001 and 200,000 
of all samples showed a bacterial count between 200,001 and 300,000 
of all samples showed a bacterial count between 300,001 and 500,000 
of all samples showed a bacterial count between 500,001 and 1,000,000 
of all samples showed a bacterial count of over 1,000,000 



per cc. 
per cc. 
per cc. 
per cc. 
per cc. 
per cc. 
per cc. 



per cc. 
per cc. 
per cc. 
per cc. 
per cc. 
per cc. 
per cc. 



Respectfully submitted, 

J. B. EDWARDS, 
Assistant Food and Dairy Inspector. 



[ 13 ] 



DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORY REPORT 
For the Year 1935 

White Colored 





Pos. 


Neg. 


Pos. 


Neg. 


Total 


Throat swabs for Vincent's angina- 


5 


12 


1 


3 


21 


Throat cultures for diphtheria—. 


5 


98 


7 


50 


160 


Sputum for tuberculosis 





14 


3 


7 


24 


Smears for gonorrhea 


4 


16 


4 


9 


33 


Feces for parasites 


6 


53 





6 


65 


Spinal fluid for meningoccocus 





7 


1 


2 


10 


White blood count 


1 








1 


Blood smears for malaria 


3 


14 


5 


58 


80 




White 


Colored 




Total 


Urinalyses 


614 




966 




1,580 



Respectfully submitted, 

S. C. CANTWELL, 

Laboratory Technician. 



[ H ] 



WILMINGTON PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING ASSOCIATION 
Report for the Year 1935 





This 


Last 








Districts 










Year 


Year 


Co. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


Old Patients 


9,252 


8,416 : 


1.321 1.454 1.052 


746 


793 2.301 1 


1,585 




New Patients 


3,388 


3,896 


395 


OOO 


OoO 


347 


42fi 


602 


450 




Total No. Patients 


12,640 


12,260 


1 , / 10 t 


> (19ft 1 
' , UoO J 


1 ftQQ • 

L , OOO . 


1,093 


1,219 2,903 5 


} , oss.- 




Home Visits 






















Tuberculosis Visits (Old 






















Patients) 


294 


419 


17 


29 


36 


25 


24 


33 


iso 




Tuberculosis Visits (New 






Patients) 


41 


50 


11 





2 





1 


18 


9 




Anti-par turn Visits 


2,141 


2,338 


294 


321 


334 


86 


191 


513 


402 


E. 


Post-partum Visits 


858 


971 


134 


139 


131 


67 


64 


137 


186 


R. 


Infant Welfare Visits 


5,941 


5,625 : 


1,163 


714 


681 


429 


504 ] 


1,347 1 


1,103 


A. 


Pre-School Visits 


1,601 


2,288 


67 


360 


337 


361 


295 


68 


113 


Nurses 


School Child Visits 


3,146 


3,039 


131 


488 


543 


495 


394 


838 


257 


518 


General Nursing Visits 


3,341 


3,803 


308 


588 


649 


417 


644 


328 


407 





Communicable Disease Visits 237 


763 


33 


58 


46 


16 


21 


7 


56 





Instructive Visits 


969 


1,146 


49 


395 


188 


121 


90 


57 


69 





Social Service Visits 


570 


567 


60 


129 


84 


127 


56 


49 


65 





Total Home Visits 


19,139 


21,009 2,267 3,221 3,031 2,144 


2,284 3,395 2,279 


518 


School Work 






















Nurses' Visits to Schools 


893 


575 


110 


58 


61 


82 


68 


70 


103 


341 


School Children Examined 






















in School 


3,953 


2,360 


542 


199 


202 


222 


138 


335 


257 


2,058 


School Children Examined 






















for Com. Disease 


13,112 


14,052 : 


L.344 


244 


280 


420 


305 J 


5,802 ( 


J.239 


1,478 


School Children Excluded 






















for Com. Disease— 


268 


692 


22 


36 


39 


30 


19 


15 


33 


174 


School Children Referred 






















to Doctor. 


3,012 


1,178 


355 


158 


123 


139 


82 


515 


178 


1 , 40Z 


Dressings Done in School 


6,940 


2,165 


46 


290 


544 


269 


194 


145 3 


L.433 


4 019 


School Children Weighed 






















and Measured 


1,689 


165 


255 





6 


23 


1 


5 


227 


1,172 


Defects Corrected 






















Tonsils and Adenoids 


195 


196 


33 


11 


25 


26 


10 


36 


18 


36 


Eyes 


58 


21 


4 


2 


1 


7 


5 


18 


5 


16 


Teeth.._ 


1,058 


44 


468 


3 


6 


10 





277 


235 


59 


Nutrition 


14 























2 


12 


Orthopedic 
































All Other 


9 


1 























9 


Total Defects Corrected 


1,334 


262 


505 


16 


32 


43 


15 


331 


260 


132 



Vaccinations 

Smallpox. 1,280 1,067. 

Typhoid 2,381 322. 

Diptheria Toxoid. 160 80. 

All Others 25 6. 

Total Vaccinations 3,846 1,457. 

Clinic Work 

Nurses' Visits to Clinic.— 480 209. 

No. Patients at Clinic 

Infant Welfare...- 582 384. 

Pre-School 3,181 1,456. 

School Child 7 , 283 1 , 136. 

Adult.__ 958 590. 

Total No. Patients- 11,994 3,575. 



COLUMBIA MUNDS, R. N„ 

Supervising Nurse. 



C 15 ] 



JAMES WALKER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL REPORT 
Far the Year 1935 

Dr. A. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 
Wilmington, N. C. 

Dear Sir: 

We hand you herewith a report of the charity patients admitted and 
discharged for the year of 1935: 

Number remaining in hospital January 1, 1935 56 

Number admitted during 1935 2,786 



Total 2,842 

Number discharged during 1935 2,778 

Number remaining in hospital January 1, 1936 64 



Total 2,842 

Births (included in admissions) 413 (Inc. 23 S. B.) 

Deaths (included in discharges) 189 (Inc. 23 S. B.) 

Of these deaths there were: 

Institutional 102 

Within 48 hours „ 87 

Charity hospital days for the year 24,428 

Included in these hospital days are 2,411 part pay days. 

Very truly yours, 
JAMES WALKER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 
Newton Fisher, Superintendent. 
By James S. Hall, M. D. 



SANITARY INSPECTORS REPORT 
For the Year 1935 



Inspections: 
White 
Colored 



Rural water supplies improved- 
Rural privies built or improved .... 
Urban privies built or improved 

New sewers laid 

New sewer connections 

Houses condemned .' 

Water samples taken 

Quarantines.—^ 

Miles driven, county inspector 



City 


County 


Total 


19,358 


4,424 


23,782 


18,755 


2,309 


21,064 


38,113 


6,733 


44,846 




45 


45 




540 


540 


202 




202 


72 


42 


114 


112 


53 


165 


60 


1 


61 


684 


411 


1,095 


371 


134 


505 






. 12,696 



[ 16 ] 



PLUMBING INSPECTOR'S REPORT 
For the Year 1935 

Dr. A. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 
Wilmington, N. C. 

Dear Sir: 

I hereby submit a report of the inspection of plumbing made by me 
in New Hanover County, from January 1, 1935, through December 31, 
1935. The following fixtures were inspected: 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. 



Toilets 


8 


23 


28 


26 


94 


40 


48 


34 


16 


49 


36 


24 


Lavatories 


9 


12 


23 


24 


114 


38 


51 


23 


14 


87 


29 


16 


Bath Tubs 


4 


9 


15 


9 


35 


9 


16 


11 


8 


20 


17 


11 


Sinks 


5 


12 


19 


12 


47 


18 


31 


12 


12 


22 


24 


11 


Showers 










2 


1 






1 




1 


2 


Sewers 


1 




3 


"T 




3 


"a 


~5 


2 


2 


3 


3 


Sewer Stops 










__ 
















Urinals 












2 


2 












Laundry Tubs 




1 




1 






1 












Slop Hoppers 




2 








3 


1 




T 




1 




Relays 






_ 


"l 




1 


1 












Floor Drains 


1 








~4 


1 


3 




"1 




"i 




Dental Chairs 


























Septic Tanks 


























Fountains 




















2 






Total Number 


of Fixtures 


Inspected 
















1,345 



Respectfully submitted, 

R. M. KERMON, 
Plumbing Inspector of New Hanover County. 



INCINERATOR REPORT 
For the Year 1935 



Number loads trash destroyed 23,262 

Number loads garbage destroyed 998 

Number horses destroyed 34 

Number cows destroyed 5 

Number pounds railroad records destroyed 16,000 

Number loads strawberry caps destroyed 30 

Average cost per ton refuse destroyed 63 cents 



[ 17 ] 



DRAINAGE SUPERVISOR'S REPORT 
For the Year 1935 

Dr. A. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 
Wilmington, N. C. 

Dear Sir: 

I wish to submit the following report of work done for the year be- 
ginning April 1st and ending October 31st, 1935: 



Number times oiled regular route 12 

Number times oiled at Eagle Island 12 

Number times oiled at County Home . 12 

Number times oiled at Red Cross Sanatorium [ 12 

Number times oiled at Winter Park, Seagate, Wrightsville 12 

Number times oiled at Boy Scout Camp H 

Number times oiled at Greenfield Lake 13 

Number times oiled at Carolina, Wilmington, Kure's Beaches 9 

Number times oiled at Dow Chemical Company 9 

Number barrels and tanks oiled at Eagle Island 138 

Number places of discarded automobiles oiled 12 times 5 

Number fire barrels nitrocaked „ 132 

Number tanks nitrocaked at Cement Products Company 12 

Number fire barrels oiled 12 times 101 

Sand traps oiled 12 times 1,256 

Number gallons No. 4 mosquito oil used 8,384 

Number cisterns inspected 2 

Number cisterns covered 2 

Number ponds cleared in county 47 

Number ponds oiled 12 times 47 

Number inspections made in county 963 

Number new ditches dug by ERA labor . 268 

New ditches dug by ERA labor. .Miles 42 

Cleanout ditches by ERA labor 153 miles 1,184 yds. 

Dike cleared by ERA labor 1 mile 4,585 ft. 

Dike rebuilt by ERA labor 1 mile 3,525 ft. 

Number ponds drained by ERA labor 235 

Ponds drained by ERA labor (acres) 268.02 

Swamp drained by ERA labor (acres) 645.29 

Clearing by ERA labor (acres) 360.05 

Number families visited in county 135 

Number people visited in county 639 

Number people visited with no symptoms of malaria 636 

Number people visited with symptoms of malaria . 3 

Number houses screened 88 

Number houses not screened 47 



Tools and equipment on hand October 31, 1935: 1 Chevrolet truck, 

1 trailer, 1 150-gallon oil drum, 1 110-gallon oil drum, 28 50-gallon oil 
drums, 1,400 gallons refuse oil, 1 cross-cut saw, 1 boat, 5 buckets, 4 ferti- 
lizer rakes, 3 mud scoops, 1 club axe, 11 pea rakes, 5 long-handle pea rakes, 
3 grass blades, 14 shovels, 16 brush hooks, 3 weed hoes, 1 cutting knife, 

2 hay knives, 1 mattock, 1 crowbar, 6 spray cans. 

Respectfully submitted, 

G. T. MORGAN, 

Drainage Supervisor. 



C 18 ] 



TABLE No. 1 



MORTALITY STATISTICS FOR CITY OF WILMINGTON AND NEW HANOVER COUNTY FOR THE YEAR 1935 



CAUSES OF DEATH 


City and County 


Last Year 


CITY 


COUNTY 


DEATHS BY AGE 


White 


Black 


Total 


White 


Black 


Total 


Under 1 






S-1S 


15-25 


$ 


f 
^* 


65-100 


M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


Total, All Causes..- 

1. Typhoid Fever 

2. Malaria Fever 


699 
f 


707 


146 


139 


153 
21 


154 


592 
2i 


28 


26 


33 


20 


107 


97 


12 


7 


19 


51 


135 


201 
li 


177 






























3. Smallpox 


































4. Measles. _ 










































5. Scarlet Fever.— 




1> 

2 2 
1 






































6. Whooping Cough 




j-f 


i'" 


li 




3 2 " 












2"i' 






li 












7. Diphtheria.. ».._ 


























8. Influenza 


11*' 


4 1 ' 






3'"' 






1 








31 




i ! 






4 




2 


9. Dysentery 
















10. Other Epidemic Diseases 


w 






"Z 








li 








fi 








¥ 










11. Tetanus 


1 ' 

5 
26 

2» 

6 
41< 
70 3 
1258 
38 9 
43 5 

20 s 
4 2 
10° 

2 

858 

2 

3 3 

7 

1 
13 
14> 
4720 
15 3 




























12. Pellagra _ 


29 

5 
43 
72 3 

140 s 
36 s 
40 s 






=:::: 


31 

6 

li 

3 

8 
24 
30 2 

6i 

101 


31" 
21 

li 

5 
40 
6I 3 
113 7 
26 4 
38 










-™- 










I 


2 
14 
li 

7 

10 
18 ! 

6 2 
72 






13. Pulmonary Tuberculosis 


5"" 


2' 




1 




4'" 


3 " 












7 


3"~ 


14. Other Forms Tuberculosis 












15. Syphilis 

16. Cancer and Other Malignant Tumors 

17. Cerebral Hemorrhage 


1 
6 
9 1 
28 2 
7 1 
8 3 




1 

6 
11 
31i 

5 
91 












3 












15 
34 2 
64 s 
4 
12 


19 

27 
541 
10 

7 


20 

17 2 
242 

8 2 
ll 2 


1 

2 

2 2 

li 


1 

2 

4 2 




i"" 

1 
7 
2 


3 
11 
27i 
10 4 








2" 


6 
4 
2 

l__ 


li 

2 

73 








18. Organic Heart Disease.... 








2i 
1 

3 1 


19. Broncho Pneumonia 


42 
i'.. 




"j- 


20. Other Forms Pneumonia 




21. Other Respiratory Diseases 






22. Diseases of Stomach 


2 

23' 6 
42 

8* 
2 

58 5 
ji 
2 1 

8 3 

10 3 

6 
5 1 
48" 

112 


12 9 








2 " 
16 13 

31 

8* 

2 
50 3 

li 

2i 

8 3 

92 

2 

51 
351° 
10 2 
























2 




23. Diarrheal Diseases 


4' 
1 1 




3 2 " 


t 1 
li 


2'" 


i" 


7 3 " 


"1913 


3 2 












24. Appendicitis and Typhilitis 


1 

3 

.....„„.. 


1 
1 


31" 




2 

— ----- 


4 2 "' 
1 

191 


2 2 "" 
1 
25" 


25. Hernia, Intestinal Obstruction.. 


4* 

7 












26. Cirrhosis of Liver 


»■■•■ 

10" 






















27. Nephritis 


""is"" 

21 
31 
2 


2"i" 


31" 


2" 




8 2 " 










}i 
2i 
5i 




28. Diseases of Women (not cancer) 








29. Puerperal Septicemia 
































31 Congen^ital^ebih^y ^ 

32! Old Age ..'Z...ZZZ!I 




S 2 ' 

3 

2 

l 1 

7 1 




|i '"' 


















3 2 "' 






P" 










i'i 

4 


9 2 " 






















1 

7J 


5 " 


33. Suicide 


3 " 
13 4 


i '" 

11 2 

6i 


4 3 " 
41 










i'i" 

14 3 
141 


3" 
14 4 
5 


34. Accidents 


31 


3 


6 


i"" 


"131 






i 


4 3 " 




35. Homicide 






36. HI Denned 




















37. All Other Causes. 


'12316 


11b" 1 " 8 ' 


""326" 


.....„„„. 


41* 


""242" 


114i 6 






5 


2" 


9" 


"4b 2 


2"i"" 


2" 




¥ 

37 


"'245' 






Total, Excluding Non-Residents... 


598 


603 


112 


116 


139 


139 


506 


19 


20 


33 


20 


92 


70 


5 


4 


9 


118 


186 


169 


Death Rates per 1 .000 


13.5 


13.7 


12 




21 


.5 


16.0 


4 


.5 


13 


.2 


7.3 



















Non-residents to be deducted in small numerals. 



TABLE No. 2 



COMPARATIVE VITAL STATISTICS, CITY OF WILMINGTON 





1935 


1934 


1933 


1932 


1931 


1930 


1929 


1928 


1927 


19 


!6 


1925 


1924 


1923 


1922 


1921 


1920 


1919 


1918 


1917 


1916 


Estimated Population 


31,665 


31,775 


31.SS5 


31 ,995 


32,160 


32.270 


32,380 


32,4 U 


32,600 


32,7 





32,820 


32,930 


33,040 


33,150 


33,260 


33,370 


32,360 


31,844 


31,082 


30,320 


Total Live Births 


844 72 


798 42 


780 


873 


799 


890 


829 


872 


922 


952 


1,010 


981 


997 


1,059 


1,104 


1 012 


875 


705 


705 


755 


Total Stillbirths- 


52 


54 


41 


51 


62 


55 


56 


59 


66 




S8 


64 


64 


78 


90 


91 


78 


86 


72 


95 


80 


Deaths — All Ages 


506 


505 


476 


450 


476 


521 


518 


532 


475 


4 


58 


468 


478 


467 


525 


547 


563 


533 


713 


527 


443 




62 


60 


36 




78 


63 


60 


79 


105 


S3 


96 


113 


86 


97 


113 


122 


111 


100 


130 


108 


Infant Mortalitv Rate 


80.3 


79.3 


44.8 


81.3 


97.6 


70.7 


73.5 


90.5 


113.8 


87.1 


95.0 


115.1 


86.2 


91.5 


102.3 


120.5 


126.8 


141.4 


184.5 


143.0 


Deaths From Principal Di>iasz^: 














































2 l 




4 1 


31 


p 


2 1 


2 1 


22 


4 2 




2 


1 


2 


4 


3 


j 




15 


g 


2 


4 


Smallpox , 

















































1 




































2 


1 










5 








5 
















Scarlet Fever 





It 








2 2 


















2 









I 
















Whooping Cough 


3 2 


92 





3 1 


72 










7 




3 


3 





9 







6 


1 


2 


3 





BfijAra p ri 





22 


43 


1 


3 1 


3 2 


4 


6 3 


2 1 




5- 


5 5 


1 


1 


2 




2 







2 







10 2 




3 


2 


6 1 


8 4 


14 1 


41 7 


15' 


14s 


91 


31 


22 3 


15 




60 


32 


31 


4 





Tuberculosis, All Forms 


22i 


19 


26 1 




31 


28 1 


14 


17 1 


22 :l 


25 2 




35 2 


422 


35 


39 


41 


48 


49 


52 


43 


Cancer 


40 


37* 


33 


28 1 


25 4 


28 4 


225 


25 3 


30 3 


28 3 


32 5 


28 6 


29 2 


35 


24 


21 


21 


22 


19 


17 


Organic Heart Disease 


113 7 


1016 


91 6 


797 


74 7 


100 5 


112" 


108 s 


82'° 


6O 3 


75 5 


70" 


52 2 


55 


48 


53 


s 


72 


68 


29 


Pneumonia, All Forms 


64 11 


15 3 


429 


52 s 


62" 


61 9 


58° 


7710 


58 7 


69» 


60' 3 


59 6 


46 4 


68 


50 


44 


56 


225 


58 


46 




38 7 


10 3 


30 6 


36 s 


424 


398 


40 s 


46 s 


32 2 


40 1 
















78 


34 


34 


Pneumonia, Broncho 


26 4 


5 


12 3 


16 


20 


22 1 


IS 1 


31 5 


26 5 


29 7 


19 7 


172 


10 1 


21 


17 


19 


19 


147 


24 


12 


Diarrhea and Enteritis(Under Two Yrs.) 


15 12 


16 s 


51 


18 8 


10 2 


6 1 


92 


15 s 


14° 


10 l 


14' 


39 6 


27* 


23 


47 


22 


39 


55 


52 


37 


Vpphnri<; 


so 3 


70 7 


726 


69 1 


65 4 


90 9 


92* 


62 10 


51 


J 


8 4 


52 4 


50 9 


65 9 


68 


79 


51 




51 


60 


62 


Puerperal State 


10 4 


72 


10 4 


51 


13 1 


I45 


12 3 


95 


10 2 


10 2 


pi 


12i 


93 


14 


10 


6 


10 


3 


10 


9 


Communicable Diseases Reported: 












































Tjphoid Fever_ 


8" 


7 1 


9 


16' 


5 


10 1 


7 1 


8 


7 






3 


16 


17 


18 


39 


30 


68 


50 


39 


27 


Smallpox. 

Measles 



















21 


13 


1 




6 


66 


28 


5 




6 


23 












17i 


101 


1,700 


6 


31 


4 


3 


784 


1,304 


25 


4 


709 


77 


9 


1,469 


12 


.! 


124 


445 


75 


Scarlet Fever 


10 


16 2 


32 


39 


36 


44 


37 


17 


38 


37 


40 


26 


41 


33 


49 


57 


43 ( 


2 


11 


15 


Whooping Cough 


150 


297 


29 


341 


362 


357 


28 


48 


341 


270 


72 


66 


460 


120 


19 


192 




221 


107 


13 


Diphtheria 


5 


29 9 


23 


291 


53 s 


69 7 


93 9 


43 


38 


3 


4 


20 


23 


37 


52 


38 


62 


44 


15 


30 


20 



Non-residents to be deducted in small numerals. 



TABLE No. 3 



CRUDE DEATH RATE PER THOUSAND, CITY OF WILMINGTON 
(Non-Residents Excluded) 

White Black Total 



1911 21.0 37.0 28.5 

1912 15.2 29.6 22.0 

1913 14.1 27.2 20.2 

1914 13.3 27.9 20.2 

1915 12.5 23.9 17.9 

1916 10.7 18.7 14.5 

1917 12.4 21.7 16.8 

1918 20.4 24.1 22.2 

1919 13.0 18.9 16.2 

1920 12.5 23.3 16.9 

1921 13.6 20.7 16.4 

1922 11.3 22.6 15.8 

1923 9.1 21.6 13.8 

1924 9.2 22.4 14.5 

1925 9.9 20.6 14.3 

1926 10.3 19.4 14.0 

1927 9.2 22.4 14.6 

1928 13.2 21.0 16.4 

1929 , 11.8 22.2 16.0 

1930 . 11.8 22.8 16.2 

1931 10.0 21.8 14.8 

1932 10.5 19.2 14.1 

1933 11.1 20.4 14.3 

1934 „ 12.3 21.1 15.1 

1935 12.1 21.5 16.0 



TABLE No. 4 



BIRTHS 
CITY AND COUNTY 
For the Year 1935 



City 



Births (exclusive of stillbirths) 
Stillbirths 



White 



M 
261 



F 

237 



County 



White 



Black 



M 
150 
17 



F 

196 
19 



Black 



M F M F 

Births (exclusive of stillbirths ).. 12 17 10 9 

Stillbirths 10 

White 

Birth Rate, City alone 26.6 

Birth Rate, County outside City 3.3 

Birth Rate, City and County 19.3 



Total 



W 
498 
16 



Grand 
Total 
M.&F. 

B W.&B. 
346 844 
36 52 



Total 

W 
29 
1 

Black 
26.8 
4.7 
27.5 



Grand 
Total 
M.&F. 

B W.&B. 
19 48 
1 

Total 
26.7 
3.8 
20.1 



Total Deaths in City Under One Year of Age to 1,000 Live Births 

(Stillbirths and Non-Residents Excluded) 



This Year 
Last Year 



Deaths Under 
1 Year 
62 

60 



Total Live 
Births 
844 
798 



Ratio 
80.3 
79.3 



TABLE No. 5 



INFANT MORTALITY, CITY OF WILMINGTON, 1935 









WHITE 


COLORED 










DEATHS BY 


AGE 








Total 1935 


Total 1934 


V 


male 


3 




male 


•3 



less than 
ne hour 


C less than 
one hour 


One hour 
to one 
day 


One day 
to one 
week 


One week 
to one 
month 


One month 
to two 
months 


Two 
months 

to six 
months 


« 

mo 
to t 




£3 




H 






H 


> 


W 


C 


W 


C 


W 


C 


W 


C 


W 


C 


W 


All Causes- 




80 


24 


12 


36 


19 


26 


45 


3 




6 


8 


6 


10 


2 


1 


2 


4 


9 


11 


g 




























2. Scarlet Fever 








...... 


...... 




























-— 






3. Whooping Cough 










































1 


4. Diphtheria.. 






....... 











....... 




























5. Influenza 


* 








1' 




2 
























I 1 


1 




6. Dysentery 








































7. Erysipelas 












































8. Meningicoccus Meningitis-.- 












































9. Tetanus 












































10. Tuberculosis, Respiratory 












































11. Tuberculosis, Meninges 












































12. Tuberculosis, Other Forms 








































......... 




13. Syphilis.— 




2" 










....... 


....... 




....... 




......... 




















14. Convulsions. 






































15. Bronchitis 














....... 


....... 
























......... 




16. Broncho Pneumonia 


5~ 


12« 








2 
1 






























........ 


17. Pneumonia.- 


72 


42 


1 


....... 


...... 


41 


51 














....... 










3 




18. Diseases of Stomach 




...... 




























........ 




..„_.. 


19. Diarrhea and Enteritis 


12 '<> 


10' 




,r< 


12'io 




....... 






























20. Congenital Malformation 


6i 






3 1 






3 








......... 


........ 


......... 


........ 














21. Congenital Debility 


3 1 


4'" 


11 


1 


2 1 




1 


1 












1 








......... 


........ 






22. Prematurity.— 


21' 


26" 


41 


3 


7' 


...... 




14 


...... 


...... 


\\ 


~T" 


......... 


2 
















23. Injury at Birth 


6 1 


6 2 


2 


2i 


4' 


2 




2 








3 


















24. Other Diseases of Infancy 
























....... 










25. External Causes 


2 


























...... 
















26. Unknown or HI Defined 


































..... 


...... 




....... 




27. All Other Causes. 


............ 


.......... 


..... 


...... 


...... 


...... 


....... 


<;• 


...... 




......... 


......... 


......... 


..... 


....... 












........ 


28. Total, Non-Residents Excluded. 

29. Total Live Births 


62 
844" 


60 

798" 


12 




19 


IS 


25 


43 




7 






5 


10 






2 


3 




11 




30. Infant Mortality Rate 


80.3 


70.3 









































Non-residents to be deducted in small numerals. 



TABLE No. 6 



CARE OF MOTHERS AT TIME OF BIRTH OF THEIR CHILDREN, 1935 





CITY 


COUNTY 


Total City and 
County Births 


Total City and 

County % 1 


WHITE 


COLORED 


Total City Births 


Total % 


WHITE 


COLORED 


Total County 
Births 


Total % 


Live Births 

- - - 


Stillbirths 


Total 




Live Births 


Stillbirths 


Total 




Live Births 


Stillbirths 


Total 




Live Births 


Stillbirths 


Total 




Delivered by phvsicians in hospitals. 


464 


15 


479 


93.1 


280 


30 


310 


81.1 


789 


88.0 











..„„.„... 


















789 


83.4 


Delivered by physicians in homes 


31 




32 


6.2 


13 


2 


15 


3.9 


47 


5.2 


27 




28 




5 





5 


26.3 


33 


67.3 


80 


8.4 


Total delivered by physicians 


495 


16 


511 


99.4 


293 


32 


325 


85.0 


36 


93.3 


27 




28 


93.3 


5 





5 


26.3 


33 


67.3 


869 


91.8 


Delivered by midwives 


3 





3 


.58 


50 


4 


54 


14.1 


57 


6.3 









3.3 


12 





12 


63.1 


13 


26.5 


70 


7.4 


Unattended 













3 





3 


.78 


3 


.33 


1 





1 


3.3 


2 





2 


10.5 


3 


6.1 


6 


.63 


Total Births „.. 


498 


16 


514 




346 


36 


382 




896 




29 




30 




19 





10 




49 




945 





























TABLE No. 7 



COMMUNICABLE DISEASES REPORTED DURING YEAR 1935 





CITY 


COUNTY 


TOTAL 


White 


Black 


White 


Black 


City 


County 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


F. 


Diphtheria 


1 


3 


1 




1 


1 


1 




5 


3 


Chickenpox 


19 


31 


8 


2 


32 


24 


1 


"3 


60 


60 


Scarlet Fever 


3 


7 






2 


4 






10 


6 


Typhoid Fever 






"6* 


2 










8* 





Para-Typhoid 






1* 












1* 





Malaria 








i 


2 


"3 


6 


id 


1 


21 


Meningitis 


1* 


1* 


"I 










3** 





Infantile Paralysis 


2* 


1* 




T 










4** 





Pellagra 




4 




3 










7 





Pneumonia 








1 










1 





Typhus 


3 


"3 




"l 








6 


1 


Whooping-Cough 


64 


66 


10 


io 


11 


15 


"i 




150 


28 


Tuberculosis 


3 


3 


4 


8 


1 


3* 




"2 


18 


6* 


Influenza 








6 


15 






1 


6 


16 


Measles 


9* 


"7 


"1 




3 


" i 




17* 


4 


German Measles 


4 


3 














7 





Undulant Fever 


1 

8 
















1 




Gonorrhea 


"4" 


31 


5 


6 


"1 


"3 


"2 


48 


12 


Syphilis 


16 


19 


110 


159 


3 


3 


12 


25 


304 


43 


Chancroid 


6 


1 


15 


3 


2 


1 


2 


3 


25 


8 



*-Non-residents. 



TABLE No. 8 

MATERNAL MORTALITY RATES FOR PAST TWENTY YEARS 
In Five Year Periods 

(Per 1,000 Live Births) 



Wilmington and New Hanover County 







LIVE BIRTHS 




STILLBIRTHS 






















Grand 












Total 






Total 


Total 




White 


Rate 


Colored 


Rate 


Live 


White 


Colored 


Still- 














Births 






Births 




1914-1918._ 


2,426 


13.6 


2,229 


12.1 


4,655 


119 


383 


502 


5,157 


1919-1923 


3,587 


11.1 


2,455 


14.2 


6,042 


102 


279 


381 


6,423 


1924-1928_ 


3,342 


8.9 


2,232 


15.6 


5,574 


93 


194 


287 


5,861 


1929-1933 


2,813 


9.5 


1,831 


21.8 


4,644 


112 


183 


295 


4,939 


TOTAL 


12,168 


10.6 


8,747 


15.6 


20,915 


426 


1,039 


1,465 


22,380 


Total Rate Over 20 Year Period . 










-12.7 


1934 


503 3 5 


4.2 


343 7 


11.9 


846 42 










Total Rate 1934 








—7.4 


1935 


52763 


6.4 


365 9 


8.4 


8 92 72 


17 


36 


53 




Total Rate 193.5 




7.3 



















CAUSES OF MATERNAL DEATHS FOR PAST TWENTY YEARS 





Eclampsia 


Septic Infection 


Hemorrhage 


All Other Causes 


Total 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


1914-1918. 


17 


13 


4 


5 


3 


3 


9 


6 


60 


1919-1923... 


17 


14 


5 


6 


6 


2 


12 


13 


75 


1924-1928 


12 


11 


2 


13 


3 


3 


13 


8 


65 


1929-1933 


8 


14 


6 


10 


2 


4 


11 


12 


67 


TOTAL 


54 


52 


17 


34 


14 


12 


45 


39 


267 


1934 




1 




2 3 


n 


1 


2 


2 3 


7 13 


1935 


1 3 


n 





*3 








*2 


1 


4 10 



Non-residents in small numerals. 



■. ■ 






Fig. No. 3 








-A 




Typhoid Fevei 


t Death Rate, City of 
(Per Hundred Thousand^ 


Wilmington 




















— 















City of Wilmington .. 
U. S- Registration Are 


IV 


























I i I i 


ill! 


1 t 1 1 


! 1 I—I— 


l I 1 1 


1 1 "1 "1 


I'll II 



1900 



1905 



1910 



1915 



1920 



1925 



1930 



1935 



• Entero Col 


Fig. No. 4 
itis Death Rat 


il City of Wilmi 


NGTON 




(Pe 


* Hundred Thou 


sand) 














































.1 I I I 


1 1 1 1 


I'll 


I 1 ' 1 ■ 


Mil 





Fig. No. 5 




_ 






iVIalar J a Death f 
(Per Hundre 


Iate, City of W 
d Thousand) 


1 LM 1 NGTON 












































1 Mi 


_ I 1 ¥ |_ 


MM 


1 I" 





1910 



1915 



1920 



1925 



1930 



1935 



360 
320 
280 

240 
200 
160 

^2Q\ 



Fis. No. 6 


Organic Heart Death Rate, City 
(PtR Hundred Thousand) 


of Wilmington 

/ 








/ 

A- 






/ 









\ / 






' 7 — 

/ 


\ / 




/ \ / 


~7V 1 










Lll .1 


JLl-ULJ 



TT2 



" -19b 1 ' ~ T ^' 19^ ' 



1935 



160 

140 

120 
100 
80 
60 



40- 

1^ 



Fig. No. 7 
Infant Mortal i 



City of Wilmi 



y Rate 



1925" 



1935 



Fig. No. 8 Seasonal Incidence of Deaths 1925 to 1 935 

New Hanover County Including City of Wilmington 





Rates per Thous«nd 
































, 





* 


- 


























r 


1 













6|- 



Jan ]fe b ]~Mar )apr ]"ivUY [June j July~[aug ~{sept |Oct j N ov [ Dec 



900 
750 
600 

400 

300 
150 











Fig. No. 9 
Degenerative and 


Acute Infectious I 


isease Death Rates 






New Hanover Count 
City of Wilmingtc 


Y Including'" 














J N 








Degenerat I VE 
Acute Infectio 




' — - / \ 












m 1 1 


! 1 1 1 - 


TTTT 


r iiii 



260 
240| — 

220 

200 

180- 
160_ 
14C — 

120- 
100- 
80- 
60- 

40- 



FlG. No. 10 

D i fhther I a Death R„tes and Case Sates (Per Hundred Thousand) 
City or Wilmington 



Death Rate 
Case Rate djijjlj 



{ 

- -- 



— 220 



1916 191^ 1918 1919 1920 : '1921 '1922' 1923 : 1924" 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 



1935 



The average age at death (sti 
City of Wilmington, during the 



Jlbirths and non-residents exc 

YEARS 1910-19^5. 



Fig. No. 11 

ULEd) OF ALL PERSONS DYfNG 



New Hanover County including the 



The method of least squares 
«t death. The increase for 
gain for the 27 years of16. 



was used to determine the POSI 
county, including the city 

>0 YEARS. 



tion of the straight lime rt 
of Wilmington, for the years 



PRESENTING THE MATHEMATICAL CH 
1910-1935 W rt sO. 6l5 YEARS PER 



iJGE I 
YEAR, 



J THE AGE 
MAKING A TOT/ 




IT WILL POSSIBLY BE OF INTEREST TO NOTE THmT THE C0MP1LAT 
REQUIRED THE REVIEWING OF MOF E THAN 17,000 DEATH CERT I F I C A 



ION OF TH I S DAT/ 



1910 



T r- 



1915 



1920 



1925 



1930 



193? 



+5 



In the PREPARATION OF THt.SE graphs, all death certificates filed in the county, except stillbirths and non-residents, wsre used. 

D BY THE METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES. 

421 



Average Age 


Fig. No. 12 
at DEATH9 City or Wilmingt 


DN ... " 




1922 - 1935 












Average Yearly Gain OoO^S 












! — J. ! ! ... 








— i — r— - 



3a 



27 



Average Age at Death, New Ha 


Fig. No. 14 
jover County, Including City oi 


Wilmington 




1910 - 1922 












Average yearly gain 0.384 year 


s 















1922 



1925 



1930 



1935 



] Oi 



1910 



I 3 1 r 

1915 



n — 1 r 

1920 1922 




18.5 
17-0 

14.0 
12.5 
11 .0 

9-5 
8.0 



Fig. No. 16 


Maternal Death 4 Rate s All Ca;.s 
New Hanover County I nclud i ng 


is (Pfr 1000 L:ve 3 i RTHS ) 
JiTY of Wilmington 






























































1 ■ ! 




! , , ! ■ 

r" i -T~T i I 


I I I I ' 


■ i i i cr 


. i 1 7 r — 


1 

f t 



1914 



1920 



1925 



1930 



1935 



Fig. No. 17 Maternal Death R 
New Hanover Cuu;\ 


~tes s All Causes Other Than tc 
ty Including City of Wilmingto 


LAMP S I A AND SEPTIC INFECTION, 






White - 


n (Per 1000 Live oirths) ^ 






Black 

















..♦••*"** X \ 


y X f N i 






\ 










' — v- 




I I I I I 


I — i — i — i — i — 


I I I I 


i i i i i 





Fig. No. 18 


Maternal Death Rates, Septic 
New Hanover County Including 


Infect ion 

C i ty of Wilmington 




1 






(Per 1000 Live Births) 























Whitf 

3lack 

Total • •••••• 






















->< 


,1— ■/ 


*\ /' 

•-"\ i-^'c''"- y — 


"•....••** 


3- — 








h-r- , t Vi 




7 .. 






— -t r— h 1 1 




I I I I 


I I t I 





1914 



1920 



1925 



1930 



1935 



Fig. No. 19 



Maternal Death Rates, Eclampsia, New Hanover County Including City of Wilmington 
(Per 1000 Live Births) 




'. White 
" Black 
'■ Total • 



1914 



1920 



1925" 



1930 



1935 



i 



1 






: 


; ■ . ; 

























- . : := 

■ •■- T 






I 


j 




1 

3 


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: H 






•. . „ . .. .. J 


| 
i 







NEW CASES OF SYPHILIS AND GONORRHEA 
COMPARED WITH 
OTHER COMMUNICABLE DISJAS2S 
IN 

NET.' HANOVER COUNTY INCLUDING CITY OV WILMTKGTON 
1935 



Consolidated Board of Health 

WILMINGTON AND NEW HANOVER COUNTY 
NORTH CAROLINA 



ADDISON HEWLETT, Chairman 
Chairman, Board County Commissioners 
RAY FUNDERBURK, WALTER H. BLAIR, 

Superintendent Public Instruction Mayor, City of Wilmington 

W. HOUSTON MOORE, M. D. J. C. WESSELL, M. D. 

H. L. KEITH, D. D. S. 

OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES AND AFFILIATES 

A. H. Elliot, M. D Health Officer 

W. D. Carter, M. D Assistant Health Officer and County Physician 

R. P. Huffman, D. V. M Food and Dairy Inspector 

L. I. Lassiter Sanitary Engineer 

J. B. Edwards Assistant Food and Dairy Inspector 

Mrs. Lamont Smith Secretary 

Mrs. Sara Cantwell Laboratory Technician 

R. M. Kermon Plumbing Inspector 

PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES 

Miss Columbia Munds ■. Supervisor 

Paid by Ministering Circle King's Daughters 

Mrs. Addie Peiffer District No. 1 

Paid by Ministering Circle King's Daughters 

Miss Georgia Ezzell County Nurse 

Paid by Board of Health 

Miss Zou Mercer District No. 4 

Paid by Wilmington Chapter Red Cross and by Wilmington 
Public Health Nursing Association 

Mrs. Margaret Nixon .District No. 3 

Paid by Wilmington Public Health Nursing Association 
Mrs. Jeannette Hall District No. 2 

Paid by Board of Health 
Leonora Hargrave District No. 6 

Paid by Board of Health 
Clifford Richardson District No. 7 

Paid by Board of Health 

SANITARY INSPECTORS 
W. H. Hancammon H. W. Hunter 

F. P. Blanchard Porter Wagstaff 

W. C. Haas 

C. D. Rivenbark, Superintendent Incinerator 



White 



Colored Total 



Population Rural New Hanover County 8,622 4,013 12,642 

Population City of Wilmington 18,752 12,908 31,665 

Total population City and County _ 27,371 16,916 44,308 

Annual appropriation to Health Department $39,350.65 

Appropriation to New Hanover County Mosquito Commission 2,500.00 

Expeditures of Wilmington Public Health Nursing Association 

(Contributions) 5,585.00 

Total Official Agencies $47,435.65 

Expense of trash, garbage, and scavenging collections is not included in 
health appropriations. 



Wilmington's milk supply comes entirely from tuberculin tested cows. 
Wilmington has seventy-one miles of sewer mains. 

Wilmington has a modern and efficient incinerating plant for the destruc- 
tion of all garbage and refuse. 

Wilmington is better drained than any southern coastal city. 

Wilmington capital has supplied modern and up-to-date equipment for 
pasteurization of milk, and cold storage of meats and perishable foods. 

WILMINGTON SUPPLIES ITS CITIZENS WITH SAFE AND WHOLE- 
SOME WATER. 

New Hanover County has supplied every school, white and colored, with 
sanitary toilets. 



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